A to Z Glossary (Library and Information Science)

Here is a list of terms commonly used in Library and Information Science, along with brief definitions:

A -B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X-Y-Z


  • Access: The means by which users are able to locate and retrieve information resources.


  • Bibliographic Record: A description of a particular item in a library's collection, including details such as title, author, and publication date.

  • Blockchain: A distributed public ledger that records transactions.

  • Beta version: A version of a piece of software that is made available for testing, typically by a limited number of users outside the company that is developing it, before its general release.


  • CAPTCHA: It is somewhat laboured acronym for “completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart,”.

  • Cataloging: The process of describing, organizing, and classifying library materials in a standardized manner, allowing users to locate items easily.

  • Cyborgs: Cybernetic organisms

  • Cryptocurrency: It is an encrypted data string that denotes a unit of currency. It is monitored and organized by a peer-to-peer network called a blockchain, which also serves as a secure ledger of transactions, e.g., buying, selling, and transferring. (view)

  • CRAP Test: The CRAP Test, developed by Molly Beestrum, is a helpful tool to use when trying to decide if a website is a credible, valid source.

  • Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is using Internet-based remote services and resources which are being hosted by others.


  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier): DOIs are permanent IDs that always lead to the same result, making it easy to find, link and cite published articles.

  • Digital Library: A library that provides access to digital information resources, such as e-books and online databases.

  • Diamond OA: This is a form of Gold OA that does not include a requirement for authors to pay article processing charges (APCs).

  • Dataset: A collection of related sets of information that is composed of separate elements but can be manipulated as a unit by a computer.
  • Doxing: Doxing is a form of cyberbullying that uses sensitive or secret information, statements, or records for the harassment, exposure, financial harm, or other exploitation of targeted individuals.


  • Electronic Resources: Information resources that are available in digital form, such as online journals, databases, and websites.

  • Eclectic: made up of what is selected from different sources.

  • Emoticons: Emoticons are used in a digital message or text to convey the writer’s emotions or clarify intent.


  • Follett Report: A report on library services produced by American educator, librarian and library administrator, Melvil Dewey.
  • FTE (Full-Time Equivalent): An FTE stands for Full-Time Equivalent and is the unit of calculation for counting faculty positions or student enrollment at a university.


  • Gamification: the process of adding games or gamelike elements to something (such as a task) so as to encourage participation.
  • Genre: A category of artistic composition, as in literature, music, or film, characterized by similarities in form, style, or subject matter.


  • Hyperlink: A link from one web page to another, allowing users to navigate the web and access information.

  • Hacking: It is a type of methodology. It is a way to do research. (view)


  • Information Literacy: The ability to locate, evaluate, and use information effectively and ethically.

  • Infodemic: An infodemic is too much information including false or misleading information in digital and physical environments during a disease outbreak.


  • Journal: A publication that contains articles written by experts in a particular field, usually published on a regular basis.
  • Jolabokaflod:The Icelandic Tradition of Giving Books on Christmas Eve


  • Knowledge Organization System (KOS): A system used to organize and represent information, such as the Dewey Decimal System.


  • Library: An institution that collects, preserves, and makes available information and cultural works for the public.

  • Lessor: Users who buy books from writers wish to lease the rights to those books, are known as lessors.


  • Metadata: Data that provides information about other data, such as the title, author, and publication date of a book.
  • Millennials: Millennials, also known as Generation Y or the Net Generation. individuals born between 1982 and 2004 are called Millennials.
  • Minting: The act of adding the digital files as NFTs on a blockchain is known as minting.
  • Moborgs: sleeping, playing games, watching movies, using it for checking the time, calculation, address, etc.


  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): A field of study concerned with making it possible for computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language.

  • Nomophobia: Mobile addiction

  • Neoteric: A modern person; a person who advocates new ideas.

  • NFT: Non Fungible Token


  • Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC): An online catalog that allows users to search and access the collections of a library.

  • Open access to information: the free, immediate, online access to the results of scholarly research, and the right to use and re-use those results as you need. (view)

  • Ontology: a set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them.


  • Preservation: The act of maintaining and preserving information resources, such as books and manuscripts, for future use.

  • Peer review: It is the process of evaluating the scientific and research article by the group of experts in the appropriate field.

  • Paywall: A paywall is a method of restricting access to content via a paid subscription. (view)


  • Query: A request for information, often in the form of a search query in a search engine or database.


  • Reference: The process of assisting patrons in locating information, often through the use of reference materials such as encyclopedias and dictionaries.


  • Subject Headings: A standardized list of terms used to describe the subject matter of a work, allowing users to search for similar items in a library's collection.

  • Semantic Differential Scale: the semantic differential scale is a type of survey rating scale used for psychological measurement.

  • Semantic technology: Semantic Technology defines and links data on the Web (or within an enterprise) by developing languages to express rich, self-describing interrelations of data in a form that machines can process.

  • Semantic Relationship: Any relationship between two or more words based on the meaning of the words.

  • Source-Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): SNIP was created by Professor Henk Moed at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CTWS), University of Leiden. It measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a given subject field. The impact of a single citation is given a higher value in subject areas where citations are less likely, and vice versa.


  • Thesaurus: A tool used to organize information and assist with retrieval, by linking terms that are related in meaning.
  • Tortured Phrases: Unexpected, weird phrases in lieu of established ones, such as ‘counterfeit consciousness’ instead of ‘artificial intelligence.


  • Universal Resource Locator (URL): The unique address of a web page on the internet.


  • Virtual Library: A library that provides access to information resources primarily through the internet, as opposed to a physical building.


  • World Wide Web (WWW): A system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet.


  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language): A markup language used to encode digital information, allowing it to be shared and displayed across multiple platforms.


  • Yellow Pages: A directory of businesses, organized by category, that provides information on products and services.


  • Z39.50: An international standard for searching and retrieving information from databases, such as library catalogs.





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